Mesectoderm specification

Zinzen, R.P., Cande, J., Ronshaugen, M., Papatsenko, D. and Levine, M. (2006). Evolution of the ventral midline in insect embryos. Dev.Cell 11, 895-902.

Morel, V., Le Borgne, R. and Schweisguth, F. (2003). Snail is required for Delta endocytosis and Notch-dependent activation of single-minded expression. Dev.Genes Evol. 213, 65-72.

Cowden, J. and Levine, M. (2002). The Snail repressor positions Notch signaling in the Drosophila embryo. Development 129, 1785-1793.

Morel, V. and Schweisguth, F. (2000). Repression by suppressor of hairless and activation by Notch are required to define a single row of single-minded expressing cells in the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 14, 377-388.

Kasai, Y., Stahl, S. and Crews, S. (1998). Specification of the Drosophila CNS midline cell lineage: direct control of single-minded transcription by dorsal/ventral patterning genes. Gene Expr. 7, 171-189.

Ip, Y.T., Park, R.E., Kosman, D., Bier, E. and Levine, M. (1992). The dorsal gradient morphogen regulates stripes of rhomboid expression in the presumptive neuroectoderm of the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 6, 1728-1739.



Sonnenfeld, M., Ward, M., Nystrom, G., Mosher, J., Stahl, S. and Crews, S. (1997). The Drosophila tango gene encodes a bHLH-PAS protein that is orthologous to mammalian Arnt and controls CNS midline and tracheal development. Development 124, 4571-4582.

Wharton, J.,K.A., Franks, R.G., Kasai, Y. and Crews, S.T. (1994). Control of CNS midline transcription by asymmetric E-box elements: similarity to xenobiotic responsive regulation. Development 120, 3563-3569.

Nambu, J.R., Lewis, J.L., Wharton, K.A. and Crews, S.T. (1991). The Drosophila single-minded gene encodes a helix-loop-helix protein which acts as a master regulator of CNS midline development. Cell 67, 1157-1167.

Nambu, J.R., Franks, R.G., Hu, S. and Crews, S.T. (1990). The single-minded gene of Drosophila is required for the expression of genes important for the development of CNS midline cells. Cell 63, 63-75.

Crews, S.T., Thomas, J.B. and Goodman, C.S. (1988). The Drosophila single-minded gene encodes a nuclear protein with sequence similarity to the per gene product. Cell 52, 143-151.

Thomas, J.B., Crews, S.T. and Goodman, C.S. (1988). Molecular genetics of the single-minded locus: a gene involved in the development of the Drosophila nervous system. Cell 52, 133-141.


Midline cell types and gene identification

Wheeler, S.R., Stagg, S.B. and Crews, S.T. (2009). MidExDB: a database of Drosophila CNS midline cell gene expression. BMC. Dev. Biol. 9, 56.

Wheeler, S.R., Kearney, J.B., Guardiola, A.R. and Crews, S.T. (2006). Single-cell mapping of neural and glial gene expression in the developing Drosophila CNS midline cells. Dev. Biol. 294, 509-524.

Kearney, J.B., Wheeler, S.R., Estes, P., Parente, B. and Crews, S.T. (2004). Gene expression profiling of the developing Drosophila CNS midline cells. Dev. Biol. 275, 473-92.

Schmid, A., Chiba, A. and Doe, C.Q. (1999). Clonal analysis of Drosophila embryonic neuroblasts: neural cell types, axon projections and muscle targets. Development 126, 4653-4689.

Bossing, T. and Technau, G.M. (1994). The fate of the CNS midline progenitors in Drosophila as revealed by a new method for single cell labelling. Development 120, 1895-1906.

Klambt, C., Jacobs, J.R. and Goodman, C.S. (1991). The midline of the Drosophila central nervous system: a model for the genetic analysis of cell fate, cell migration, and growth cone guidance. Cell 64, 801-815.

Goodman, C.S. (1982). Embryonic development of identified neurons in the grasshopper. In Neuronal Development, Plenum. Edited by Spitzer, N.C., 171-212.


Neuronal development

Stagg, S.B. and Crews, S.T. (2011). Dual role for Drosophila lethal of scute in CNS midline precursor formation and dopaminergic neuron and motoneuron cell fate. Development 138, 2171-2183.

Wheeler, S.R., Stagg, S.B. and Crews, S.T. (2008). Multiple Notch signaling events control Drosophila CNS midline neurogenesis, gliogenesis and neuronal identity. Development 135, 3071-3079.

Miguel-Aliaga, I. and Thor, S. (2004). Segment-specific prevention of pioneer neuron apoptosis by cell-autonomous, postmitotic Hox gene activity. Development 131, 6093-6105.


Midline glia development and morphology

Watson, J.D., Wheeler, S.R., Stagg, S.B. and Crews, S.T. (2011). Drosophila hedgehog signaling and engrailed-runt mutual repression direct midline glia to alternative ensheathing and non-ensheathing fates. Development 138, 1285-1295.

Stork, T., Thomas, S., Rodrigues, F., Silies, M., Naffin, E., Wenderdel, S. and Klambt, C. (2009). Drosophila Neurexin IV stabilizes neuron-glia interactions at the CNS midline by binding to Wrapper. Development 136, 1251-1261.

Wheeler, S.R., Banerjee, S., Blauth, K., Rogers, S.L., Bhat, M.A. and Crews, S.T. (2009). Neurexin IV and wrapper interactions mediate Drosophila midline glial migration and axonal ensheathment. Development 136, 1147-1157.

Noordermeer, J.N., Kopczynski, C.C., Fetter, R.D., Bland, K.S., Chen, W.Y. and Goodman, C.S. (1998). Wrapper, a novel member of the Ig superfamily, is expressed by midline glia and is required for them to ensheath commissural axons in Drosophila. Neuron 21, 991-1001.

Stollewerk, A., Klambt, C. and Cantera, R. (1996). Electron microscopic analysis of Drosophila midline glia during embryogenesis and larval development using beta-galactosidase expression as endogenous cell marker. Microsc. Res. Tech. 35, 294-306.


Midline glia apoptosis

Giesen, K., Lammel, U., Langehans, D., Krukkert, K., Bunse, I. and Klambt, C. (2003). Regulation of glial cell number and differentiation by ecdysone and Fos signaling. Mech. Dev. 120, 401-13.

Bergmann, A., Tugentman, M., Shilo, B.Z. and Steller, H. (2002). Regulation of cell number by MAPK-dependent control of apoptosis: a mechanism for trophic survival signaling. Dev. Cell 2, 159-170.

Dong, R. and Jacobs, J.R. (1997). Origin and differentiation of supernumerary midline glia in Drosophila embryos deficient for apoptosis. Dev. Biol. 190, 165-177.

Scholz, H., Sadlowski, E., Klaes, A. and Klambt, C. (1997). Control of midline glia development in the embryonic Drosophila CNS. Mech. Dev. 64, 137-151.

Sonnenfeld, M.J. and Jacobs, J.R. (1995). Apoptosis of the midline glia during Drosophila embryogenesis: a correlation with axon contact. Development 121, 569-578.


Midline signaling

Kidd, T., Bland, K.S. and Goodman, C.S. (1999). Slit is the midline repellent for the robo receptor in Drosophila. Cell 96, 785-794.

Luer, K., Urban, J., Klambt, C. and Technau, G.M. (1997). Induction of identified mesodermal cells by CNS midline progenitors in Drosophila. Development 124, 2681-2690.

Zhou, L., Xiao, H. and Nambu, J.R. (1997). CNS midline to mesoderm signaling in Drosophila. Mech. Dev. 67, 59-68.

Golembo, M., Raz, E. and Shilo, B.Z. (1996). The Drosophila embryonic midline is the site of Spitz processing, and induces activation of the EGF receptor in the ventral ectoderm. Development 122, 3363-3370.

Lewis, J.O. and Crews, S.T. (1994). Genetic analysis of the Drosophila single-minded gene reveals a central nervous system influence on muscle development. Mech. Dev. 48, 81-91.

Kim, S.H. and Crews, S.T. (1993). Influence of Drosophila ventral epidermal development by the CNS midline cells and spitz class genes. Development 118, 893-901.


Axon guidance

Keleman, K., Ribeiro, C. and Dickson, B.J. (2005). Comm function in commissural axon guidance: cell-autonomous sorting of Robo in vivo. Nat. Neurosci. 8, 156-163.

Rajagopalan, S., Vivancos, V., Nicolas, E. and Dickson, B.J. (2000). Selecting a longitudinal pathway: Robo receptors specify the lateral position of axons in the Drosophila CNS. Cell 103, 1033-1045.

Kidd, T., Bland, K.S. and Goodman, C.S. (1999). Slit is the midline repellent for the robo receptor in Drosophila. Cell 96, 785-794.

Kidd, T., Brose, K., Mitchell, K.J., Fetter, R.D., Tessier-Lavigne, M., Goodman, C.S. and Tear, G. (1998). Roundabout controls axon crossing of the CNS midline and defines a novel subfamily of evolutionarily conserved guidance receptors. Cell 92, 205-215.

Kolodziej, P.A., Timpe, L.C., Mitchell, K.J., Fried, S.R., Goodman, C.S., Jan, L.Y. and Jan, Y.N. (1996). frazzled encodes a Drosophila member of the DCC immunoglobulin subfamily and is required for CNS and motor axon guidance. Cell 87, 197-204.

Tear, G., Harris, R., Sutaria, S., Kilomanski, K., Goodman, C.S. and Seeger, M.A. (1996). commissureless controls growth cone guidance across the CNS midline in Drosophila and encodes a novel membrane protein. Neuron 16, 501-514.

Mitchell, K.J., Doyle, J.L., Serafini, T., Kennedy, T.E., Tessier-Lavigne, M., Goodman, C.S. and Dickson, B.J. (1996). Genetic analysis of Netrin genes in Drosophila: Netrins guide CNS commissural axons and peripheral motor axons. Neuron 17, 203-215.

Seeger, M., Tear, G., Ferres-Marco, D. and Goodman, C.S. (1993). Mutations affecting growth cone guidance in Drosophila: genes necessary for guidance toward or away from the midline. Neuron 10, 409-426.